Health Topics beginning with "S"
- Salmonellosis - is an infection caused by certain species of Salmonella, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium.
- Salpingitis - refers to inflammation of the fallopian tube.
- Sarcoidosis - is characterized by collections of chronic inflammatory cells, typically in the chest, eye, or skin.
- Schizoid Personality Disorder - will display a lifelong pattern of social withdrawal.
- Schizophrenia - is often referred to as split personality disorder, because the person's thoughts and feelings do not relate to each other in a logical fashion.
- Scleroderma - A widespread connective tissue disease in which the skin and other body parts gradually degenerate, thicken and become stiff.
- Scoliosis - A painless bending and twisting of the spinal column, which is sometimes progressive, and distorts the chest and back.
- Seizure - is a brief and abnormal period of behavior caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
- Sepsis - is the presence of disease-causing organisms (usually bacteria), or the toxins they produce, in the bloodstream.
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) - affect more than 12 million men and women in the United States each year. Many are teenagers or young adults.
- Shigellosis - is an infection of the intestines caused by several different species of Shigella bacteria.
- Shingles - A viral infection of the central nervous system.
- Sickle-Cell Anemia - an inherited blood disorder that causes anemia, episodes of severe pain, low resistance to infection and chronic poor health.
- Sinus Infection - inflammation of the sinuses (air-filled cavities) adjacent to the nose.
- Sjogren's Syndrome - The second most common autoimmune, rheumatic disorder (after rheumatoid arthritis).
- Sleep Apnea - episodes of cessation of breathing, during sleep, that last 10 seconds or longer. It can affect all ages, but is most common in adults over 60.
- Smoking - Cigarette smoking is an addiction disorder and the cause of many serious health problems.
- Social phobia - is characterized by an excessive fear of humiliation or embarrassment in various social settings, such as public speaking, urinating in a public restroom, and speaking to a date.
- Spinal cord tumor - an abnormal growth that compresses the spinal cord or its nerve roots.
- Spinal stenosis - is a narrowing of the spinal canal in the low back (lumbar) area.
- Spondylolisthesis - occurs when the vertebrae's support system fails and one vertebra slips forward out of alignment and remains out of position.
- Spondylolysis - is a break or fracture in the arch in the posterior segment of the vertebra.
- Strep Throat - infection and inflammation of the pharynx by streptococcal bacteria.
- Stress Disorder, Acute - the physical, mental and emotional reactions experienced as the result of changes and demands in one's life.
- Stroke - a sudden decrease in the blood supply to part of the brain, damaging the area so it cannot function normally.
- Syphilis - is known as the "great mimic," because its symptoms resemble those of many other diseases.
- Syringomyelia - describes the condition in which a fluid-filled cavity grows within the spinal cord, usually in the neck area.
- Salivary gland infection - A bacterial infection due to blockage of ducts in the salivary gland through which saliva flows to the mouth.
- Scabies - A contagious and itchy skin disease caused by a very small species of mite.
- Scarlet fever - A bacterial infection that causes a bright red rash, particularly in children.
- Seasonal affective disorder (sad) - Depression that occurs on a seasonal basis, most often in winter.
- Shock - A condition in which blood pressure drops so low that blood flow from the body back to the heart is interrupted.
- Shoulder, frozen - A disorder that causes severe pain and stiffening of the shoulder.
- Skin cancer - A form of skin cancer that begins in the cells that produce pigment.
- Skin lesions - Any change to the color and/or texture of the skin (e.g., redness, itching, inflammation, raised bumps).
- Sleep disorders - Any difficulties related to sleeping. These include difficulties falling asleep or staying asleep, falling asleep at inappropriate times and sleeping too much. More than 100 disorders have been identified.
- Sores, pressure - An area of skin and tissue damaged by prolonged, relieved pressure that cuts off blood.
- Spondylitis, ankylosing - Chronic disease primarily affecting the spine, which may lead to stiffness of the back.
- Sporotrichosis - A fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It usually infects the skin or lymph nodes.
- Sprains and strains - A strain occurs when a muscle or tendon is overstretched. A sprain is a stretching or tearing of a ligament. Both frequently result in swelling, pain and bruising.
- Stomach cancer - Cancer of the stomach that may begin anywhere within the stomach and often spreads throughout the stomach and to other organs.
- Stomatitis - Inflammation, ulcers or sores on the lining of or around the mouth. It may be a side effect of chemotherapy.
- Strabismus - Misalignment of the eyes, which may be crossed (esotropia) or turned upward, downward or outward (exotropia).
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage - An often fatal condition in which there is bleeding between the brain and the skull, usually from a ruptured blood vessel.
- Substance abuse and addiction - A disorder marked by the use of a substance that alters mood or behavior and causes significant distress or harm in one's life.
- Sunburn - Occurs when the skin is burned due to exposure to the sun or other ultraviolet light source that exceeds the ability of the body's protective pigment (melanin) to protect the skin. Lighter-skinned people burn more quickly.
Drugs starting with S
- Sildenafil citrate - enhances the erectile response to sexual stimulation and is used for the treatment of men who have difficulty in obtaining or maintaining an erection.
- Sertraline - is used to treat depression, panic attacks, and other disorders.
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